Figure 2
Figure 2. Characterization of TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 in tumors from proton irradiated and unirradiated adolescent and old mice. The mRNA expression for A) TGFβ1 and for B) TGFβ2, was determined by real-time PCR (RTPCR). Fold changes for mRNA expression were determined for each group, compared to 0Gy adolescent mice. Significance is indicated by the p-values within the plots.   C) Gene network depiction of upstream regulators predicted to be either activated (orange) or inhibited (blue) in tumors from irradiated old mice versus from unirradiated old mice, determined by IPA software. Specific up-regulated (red) and down-regulated (green) genes from the experimental data set involved in determining the activation state of the upstream regulator are shown with direct (—solid lines) and indirect (- - dashed lines) relationships to the upstream regulators. The predicted relationships are color coded to indicate whether it leads to activation (orange) or inhibition (blue). Relationships that are inconsistent with the prediction (yellow) or have an undetermined effect (grey) are also shown. The darker the shade of green or red, the greater the fold change.   D) A schematic of the activation states of the upstream regulators illustrating the balance between the tumor promoters (text in yellow) and tumor suppressors (text in green) with a predicted activation (orange oval) or predicted inhibition (blue oval).

Reference: Proton Irradiation Augments the Reduction in Tumor Progression Observed With Advanced Age. Beheshti A, Peluso M, Lamont C, Hahnfeldt P, and Hlatky L. Accepted Radiation Research   in press, 2014.


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